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dc.contributor.authorGüleç, Fatih
dc.description.abstractThis paper presents a comprehensive analysis of adsorbent capacity of five distinctly different bio-sorbents derived from untreated biomasses. The optimal adsorption capacity of seaweed (Laminaria digitata), horse chestnut husk, hazelnut husk, rapeseed residue, and whitewood) to re-move methylene blue (MB) dye was assessed by analysing the effects of particle size, pH, temperature, and initial dye concentrations. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and adsorption thermodynamics were investigated. The results showed that relatively high MB ad-sorption capacity was achieved by Laminaria digitata (~180 mg/g), in addition to a reasonable MB adsorption capacity of horse chestnut husk (~130 mg/g), hazelnut husk (~110 mg/g), and rapeseed residue (~80 mg/g). However, whitewood provides a relatively low adsorption capacity of below 20 mg/g. The best fit with experimental results regardless of bio-sorbent type was a Pseudo-second-order kinetic model with lowest the mean absolute percentage error (ε, MAPE < 2.5%) and the highest correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.99). Although the pseudo-second-order kinetic model is often associated with chemisorption, the low enthalpy values (<29.30 kJ/mol) typically suggest that the adsorption process is more characteristic of physisorption, which involves weaker van der Waals forces rather than the stronger covalent bonds of chemisorption. This proposed a multi-step adsorption process involving both physisorption and chemisorption. The adsorption isotherm of Langmuir showed superior fitting results for Laminaria digitata and hazelnut husk. In contrast, rapeseed residue and horse chestnut husk fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The Langmuir adsorption isotherms showed a maximum adsorption capacity of ~500 mg/g for Laminaria digitata, followed by horse chestnut husk (~137 mg/g), hazelnut husk (~120 mg/g), and rapeseed residue (~85 mg/g). The Gibbs free energy was negative for Laminaria digitata < horse chestnut husk < hazelnut husk < 0, which suggests that the removal of MB is thermodynamically favourable, as the adsorption process occurs spontaneously. The results of the study indicate that MB dye removal using untreated biomasses has the potential to be a low-cost valorisation option in the holistic whole life cycle valorisation pathway for Laminaria digitata, horse chestnut husk, and hazelnut husk.en_UK
dc.publisherThe University of Nottinghamen_UK
dc.subject.lcshSewage — Purification — Technological innovationsen_UK
dc.titleExploring the utilisation of natural bio-sorbents for effective methylene blue removalen_UK
dc.subject.freeBio-sorbents, Methylene blue, Wastewater treatment, Adsorption, Surface chemistry.en_UK
dc.subject.lcT Technologyen_UK
dc.subject.lcT Technologyen_UK 2020-August 2021en_UK
uon.divisionUniversity of Nottingham, UK Campus::Faculty of Engineering::Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineeringen_UK
uon.funder.controlledEngineering & Physical Sciences Research Councilen_UK
uon.funder.controlledBiotechnology & biological Sciences Research Councilen_UK
uon.datatypeExcel dataen_UK
uon.funder.freeUniversity of Nottingham Anne McLaren Research Fellowshipen_UK
uon.collectionmethodinstruments: mill, sieves, elemental anyalser, FTIR, TGA, BET, incubator, UV-Visen_UK
uon.institutes-centresUniversity of Nottingham, UK Campusen_UK

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